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سال ۱۳۹۷ سال حمایت از کالای ایرانی گرامی باد

Friction

  1. Abstract

    In this work, tribological characteristics of thin films composed of entangled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. The surface roughness of CNT thin films fabricated via a dip-coating process was controlled by squeezing during the process with an applied normal force ranging from 0 to 5 kgf. Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the thin films were obtained to estimate the influence of the squeezing process on the crystallinity of the CNTs. The analysis revealed that squeezing could reduce surface roughness, while preserving the crystallinity of the CNTs. Moreover, the surface energy of the cover glass used to press the CNT thin film was found to be the critical factor controlling surface roughness. A micro-tribometer and macro-tribometer were used to assess the tribological characteristics of the CNT thin film. The results of the tribotest exhibited a correlation between the friction coefficient and surface roughness. Dramatic changes in friction coefficient could be observed in the micro-tribotest, while changes in friction coefficient in the macro-tribotest were not significant.

  2. Abstract

    In this experimental study, chromium oxide powder was sprayed on a low-carbon steel substrate using the atmospheric plasma spray process. The current and standoff distances (SODs) were varied to study their effect on the fracture toughness of the coatings. Theoretically, as the arc current increases, the melting of the ceramic oxide should increase and this in turn should lead to the formation of a dense coating. However, it was observed that if the arc power is too high and because the particle size of the powder is small (approximately 30 μm), the particles tend to fly away from the plasma core. Similarly, an appropriate SOD should provide the particles with more melting time, thus resulting in a dense coating. On the other hand, a larger SOD leads to the solidification of the molten particles before the droplets can reach the substrate. All these effects may lead to substantial variation in the fracture toughness of the coating. The present paper attempts to correlate the plasma spraying parameters and microstructure of the coating with the fracture toughness and other primary coating properties.

  3. Abstract

    This paper reports a test investigation of friction and wear responses from sand contaminated lubricated sliding. The influence of sand contaminants on wear and friction is characterized. Analyses are completed utilizing segments of piston ring sliding against the cylinder liner. Paraffin oil, with and without sand contaminants, is utilized. The effects of the concentration and particle size of sand are examined.

    Based on the observations in the present work, we found that friction and wear increase with sand concentration in the lube. Solid proposals ought to be considered, in order to enlighten the general population on the importance of changing a car engine’s oil filter regularly.

  4. Abstract

    For the ring/liner conjunction, well-designed surface texturing has been regarded as a potential means to improve its tribological performance, as well as the application of coating. However, so far most researchers focused on the one of these aspects. In this study, the combined effect of coating and texturing on the performance of ring/liner conjunction is numerically investigated. A thermal mixed lubrication model is presented. The effects of the coating’s thermal and mechanical properties on the tribological performance are studied under the cold and warm engine operating conditions. Along with the increasing coating thickness, the effects of the coating’s thermal properties on friction loss are found to be significant, as well as the effects of the coating’s mechanical properties. It is also found that a soft coating with a lower thermal inertia has a greater ability to reduce the friction loss of the textured conjunction.

  5. Abstract

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations have provided unique insights into the nanoscale behaviour of lubricants under shear. This review discusses the early history of NEMD and its progression from a tool to corroborate theories of the liquid state, to an instrument that can directly evaluate important fluid properties, towards a potential design tool in tribology. The key methodological advances which have allowed this evolution are also highlighted. This is followed by a summary of bulk and confined NEMD simulations of liquid lubricants and lubricant additives, as they have progressed from simple atomic fluids to ever more complex, realistic molecules. The future outlook of NEMD in tribology, including the inclusion of chemical reactivity for additives, and coupling to continuum methods for large systems, is also briefly discussed.

  6. Abstract

    Geckos’ ability to move on steep surfaces depends on their excellent adhesive structure, timely adjustments on locomotor behaviors, and elaborates control on reaction forces. However, it is still unclear how they can generate a sufficient driving force that is necessary for locomotion, while ensuring reliable adhesion on steep inclines. We measured the forces acting on each foot and recorded the contact states between feet and substrates when geckos encountered smooth inclination challenges ranging from 0° to 180°. The critical angles of the resultant force vectors of the front and hind-feet increased with respect to the incline angles. When the incline angle became greater than 120°, the critical angles of the front- and hind-feet were similar, and the averages of the critical angles of the front- and hind-feet were both smaller than 120°, indicating that the complicated and accurate synergy among toes endows gecko’s foot an obvious characteristic of “frictional adhesion” during locomotion. Additionally, we established a contact mechanical model for gecko’s foot in order to quantify the contribution of the frictional forces generated by the heel, and the adhesion forces generated by the toes on various inclines. The synergy between multiple contact mechanisms (friction or adhesion) is critical for the reliable attachment on an inclined surface, which is impossible to achieve by using a single-contact mechanism, thereby increasing the animal’s ability to adapt to its environment.

  7. Abstract

    In this study, the lubrication performance of the crank pin bearing in a marine two–stroke diesel engine is evaluated to investigate the adhesional failure on the crank pin bearing. A numerical algorithm for the lubrication analysis considering motion analysis of the crank pin system is developed. The film pressure and thickness for three clearances and three lubricant temperatures are calculated. The results show that the lubricant temperature has a higher effect on film thickness than clearance. In terms of the film parameter, the operating condition that can result in solid–solid contact is investigated. We also suggest the desirable operating conditions of clearance and lubricant temperature to prevent the solid–solid contact.

  8. Abstract

    The so-called “green ship” is being regarded as a potential solution to the problems that the shipping industry faces, such as energy conservation and environmental protection. Some new features, such as integrated renewable energy application, biomimetic materials, and antifriction and wear resistant coating have been accepted as the typical characteristics of a green ship, but the tribology problems involved in these domains have not been precisely redefined yet. Further, the related research work is generally focused on the technology or material itself, but not on the integration of the applicable object or green ship, marine environment, and tribological systematical analysis from the viewpoint of the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP) improvements. Aiming at the tribology problems of the green ship, this paper reviews the research status of this issue from three specific domains, which are the tribology problems of the renewable energy system, tribological research for hull resistance reduction, and energy efficiency enhancement. Some typical tribological problems in the sail‐auxiliary system are discussed, along with the solar photovoltaic system and hull drag reduction in traditional marine mechanical equipment. Correspondingly, four domains that should be further considered for the future development target of the green ship are prospected.

  9. Abstract

    Rotary near-field lithography (RNFL) technology provides a route to overcome the diffraction limit with a high throughput and low cost for nanomanufacturing. Utilizing the advantage of the passive flying of a plasmonic head, RNFL can achieve a 10 m/s processing speed with a perfect near-field condition at dozens of nanometers. The flying performance of the plasmonic flying head (PFH) is the pivotal issue in the system. The linewidth has a strong correlation with the near-field gap, and the manufacturing uniformity is directly influenced by the dynamic performance. A more serious issue is that the unexpected contact between the PFH and substrate will result in system failure. Therefore, it is important to model and analyze the flying process of the PFH at the system level. In this study, a novel full-coupled suspension-PFH-air-substrate (SPAS) model that integrates a six-degree of freedom suspension-PFH dynamics, PFH-air-substrate air bearing lubrication, and substrate vibration, is established. The pressure distribution of the air bearing is governed by the molecular gas lubrication equation that is solved by the finite element method (FEM) with a local pressure gradient based adaptive mesh refinement algorithm using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. Based on this model, three designs of the air bearing surface are chosen to study the static, dynamic, and load/unload performance to verify whether it satisfies the design requirements of RNFL. Finally, a PFH analysis solver SKLY.app is developed based on the proposed model.

  10. Abstract

    In this work, the friction characteristics of single-layer MoS2 prepared with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at three different temperatures were quantitatively investigated and compared to those of single-layer MoS2 prepared using mechanical exfoliation. The surface and crystalline qualities of the MoS2 specimens were characterized using an optical microscope, atomic force microscope (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. The surfaces of the MoS2 specimens were generally flat and smooth. However, the Raman data showed that the crystalline qualities of CVD-grown single-layer MoS2 at 800 °C and 850 °C were relatively similar to those of mechanically exfoliated MoS2 whereas the crystalline quality of the CVD-grown single-layer MoS2 at 900 °C was lower. The CVD-grown single-layer MoS2 exhibited higher friction than mechanically exfoliated single-layer MoS2, which might be related to the crystalline imperfections in the CVD-grown MoS2. In addition, the friction of CVD-grown single-layer MoS2 increased as the CVD growth temperature increased. In terms of tribological properties, 800 °C was the optimal temperature for the CVD process used in this work. Furthermore, it was observed that the friction at the grain boundary was significantly larger than that at the grain, potentially due to defects at the grain boundary. This result indicates that the temperature used during CVD should be optimized considering the grain size to achieve low friction characteristics. The outcomes of this work will be useful for understanding the intrinsic friction characteristics of single-layer MoS2 and elucidating the feasibility of single-layer MoS2 as protective or lubricant layers for micro- and nano-devices.

  11. Abstract

    Friction is a genuine issue in the use of many medical devices involving rubbery materials such as plungers in medical syringes. This paper presents a new direction for the reduction of friction in medical syringes based on surface texturing of the rubber plunger. The specimens were prepared by casting poly(vinylsiloxane) (PVS) rubber into a pre-fabricated negative template obtained by 3D printing. Friction tests were performed on a home-made test-rig. It was clearly shown that friction resistance can be considerably manipulated when using textured plungers.

  12. Abstract

    Efficient and sustainable use of water-based lubricants is essential for energy efficiency. Therefore, the use of water-lubricated mechanical systems instead of conventional oil lubricants is extremely attractive from the viewpoint of resource conservation. In this study, water-soluble Cu nanoparticles of size approximately 3 nm were prepared at room temperature (around 25 °C) via in-situ surface modification. The tribological behavior of the as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles as an additive in distilled water was evaluated using a universal micro-tribotester. The results show that the as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles, as a water-based lubricant additive, can significantly improve the tribological properties of distilled water. In particular, the lowest friction coefficient of 0.06 was obtained via lubrication with a concentration of 0.6 wt% of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water, which is a reduction of 80.6% compared with that obtained via lubrication with distilled water alone. It is considered that some Cu nanoparticles entered the contact area of the friction pairs to form a complex lubricating film and prevent direct contact of the friction pairs. Furthermore, some Cu nanoparticles in the solution accelerate the heat transfer process, which also results in good tribological properties.

  13. Abstract

    Metal matrix nanocomposites (MMnCs) comprise a metal matrix filled with nanosized reinforcements with physical and mechanical properties that are very different from those of the matrix. In ZA-27 alloy-based nanocomposites, the metal matrix provides ductility and toughness, while usually used ceramic reinforcements give high strength and hardness. Tested ZA-27 alloy-based nanocomposites, reinforced with different types (SiC and Al2O3), amounts (0.2 wt.%, 0.3 wt.%, and 0.5 wt.%) and sizes (25 nm, 50 nm, and 100 nm) of nanoparticles were produced through the compocasting process with mechanical alloying pre-processing (ball milling). It was previously shown that the presence of nanoparticles in ZA-27 alloy-based nanocomposites led to the formation of a finer structure in the nanocomposites matrix and an improvement in the basic mechanical properties (hardness and compressive yield strength) through the enhanced dislocation density strengthening mechanism. Solid particle erosive wear testing demonstrated that these improvements were followed with an increase in the erosive wear resistance of tested nanocomposites, as well. Additionally, by analyzing the influences of type, amount, and size of nanoparticles on the erosive wear resistance of nanocomposites, it was demonstrated that there is an optimal amount of nanoparticles, which in our case is 0.3 wt.%, and that the presence of SiC nanoparticles and smaller nanoparticles in nanocomposites had more beneficial influence on erosive wear resistance.

  14. Abstract

    Comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis were employed to analyze the antiwear properties of a series of 57 esters as potential lubricant-based oils. Predictive 3D-quantitative structure tribo-ability relationship models were established using the SYBYL multifit molecular alignment rule with a training set and a test set. The optimum models were all shown to be statistically significant with cross-validated coefficients q2 > 0.5 and conventional coefficients r2 > 0.9, indicating that the models are sufficiently reliable for activity prediction, and may be useful in the design of novel ester-based oils.

  15. Abstract

    The combined effect of boundary layer formation and surface smoothing on friction and wear rate of metallic surfaces under lubricated point contact condition was investigated. The double trend of friction coefficient variations was revealed during running-in and sub-running-in processes. The evolution of surface topography was measured on-site using white-light interference profilometer and analyzed using bearing area curves. Comprehensive theoretical equations that explicitly express the contributions of boundary friction, adhesive friction and wear have been derived, and results obtained by these equations were compared with experimental observations. It is concluded that the theoretical models are quantitatively adequate to describe the combined effect of surface smoothing due to mechanical wear and formation of boundary films on the changes in friction and wear rate during normal running-in processes.

  16. Abstract

    In this paper, the properties of an oxide film formed on a pure iron surface after being polished with an H2O2-based acidic slurry were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) to partly reveal the material removal mechanism of pure iron during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). The AFM results show that, when rubbed against a cone-shaped diamond tip in vacuum, the material removal depth of the polished pure iron first slowly increases to 0.45 nm with a relatively small slope of 0.11 nm/μN as the applied load increases from 0 to 4 μN, and then rapidly increases with a large slope of 1.98 nm/μN when the applied load further increases to 10 μN. In combination with the AES and AR-XPS results, a layered oxide film with approximately 2 nm thickness (roughly estimated from the sputtering rate) is formed on the pure iron surface. Moreover, the film can be simply divided into two layers, namely, an outer layer and an inner layer. The outer layer primarily consists of FeOOH (most likely α-FeOOH) and possibly Fe2O3 with a film thickness ranging from 0.36 to 0.48 nm (close to the 0.45 nm material removal depth at the 4 μN turning point), while the inner layer primarily consists of Fe3O4. The mechanical strength of the outer layer is much higher than that of the inner layer. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the inner layer is quite close to that of the pure iron substrate. However, when a real CMP process is applied to pure iron, pure mechanical wear by silica particles generates almost no material removal due to the extremely high mechanical strength of the oxide film. This indicates that other mechanisms, such as in-situ chemical corrosion-enhanced mechanical wear, dominate the CMP process.

  17. Abstract

    In this study, based on the classical Archard adhesion wear theory, a three-dimensional finite element model was established, with the aim of simulating the failure process of self-lubricating spherical plain bearings in the swinging wear condition. The results show that the self-lubricating spherical plain bearings go through two different stages during the wear process, namely, initial wear stage and stable wear stage. Because the large contact points wear out during the initial wear stage, the maximum contact pressure decreases as the test period increases. The relatively larger wear depth region shows elliptical distribution, and the maximum distribution appears in the central contact area. The wear depth reaches 0.974 mm after swinging 25,000 times. PTFE fibers, which possess a good friction performance but poor abrasion resistance, abundantly exist on the friction surfaces of the fabric liner. Consequently, the friction torque during the initial wear stage is slightly smaller than the friction torque during the stable wear stage; however, the wear rate during the initial wear stage is high. The reliability and effectiveness of the finite element model are verified by experiment. The developed finite element model can be used for the analysis of the wear mechanisms of bearings and the prediction of the service life of bearings.

  18. Abstract

    In this research, results of the investigation of the sliding friction and wear of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) and Y-TZP-Al2O3 samples preliminarily subjected to low-temperature degradation are reported. The investigation was carried out using a pin-on-disk tribometer with simultaneous recording of acoustic emission (AE) and vibration acceleration. The sliding wear process was found to be determined by dynamic direct and inverse Y-TZP transformations detected by monoclinic and tetragonal X-ray diffraction peak ratios. The AE signals generated under direct and inverse transformations can be used to characterize wear and friction mechanisms as well as direct and inversed sliding-induced phase transformations. The AE signal energy grows with the friction coefficient and the inverse transformation degree. Reduction of the AE signal energy indicates establishing the mild wear stage caused by effective stress-induced direct martensitic transformation. The AE signal median frequency increases in the case of lower friction. Numerical studies of wear subsurface fracture under conditions of stress-induced martensitic transformation were used to elucidate the role played by the phase transformation in Y-TZP and Y-TZP-Al2O3. Martensitic transformation in Y-TZP was described with use of the non-associated dilatant plasticity model. Simulation results particularly show that increase in the value of dilatancy coefficient from 0 to 0.2 is accompanied by 25%−30% reduce in characteristic length and penetration depth of sliding-induced subsurface cracks. As shown the AE may be an effective tool for in-situ monitoring the subsurface wear of materials experiencing both direct and inverse transformations.

  19. Abstract

    60 years ago, in 1958, Ernest Rabinowicz published a 5 page paper titled “The effect of size on the looseness of wear fragments” where he suggested a criterion determining the minimum size of wear particles. The criterion of Rabinowicz is based on the consideration of the interplay of elastic energy stored in “asperities” and the work of separation needed for detaching a wear particle. He was probably the first researcher who explicitly emphasized the role of adhesion in friction and wear. In a recent paper in Nature Communications, Aghababaei, Warner and Molinari confirmed the criterion of Rabinowicz by means of quasi-molecular dynamics and illustrated the exact mechanism of the transition from plastic smoothing to formation of wear debris. This latter paper promoted the criterion of Rabinowicz to a new paradigm for current studies of adhesive wear. The size arguments of Rabinowicz can be applied in the same form also to many other problems, such as brittle-ductile transition during indentation, cutting of materials or ultimate strength of nano-composites.