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سال ۱۳۹۷ سال حمایت از کالای ایرانی گرامی باد

Friction

  1. Abstract

    In this research, results of the investigation of the sliding friction and wear of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) and Y-TZP-Al2O3 samples preliminarily subjected to low-temperature degradation are reported. The investigation was carried out using a pin-on-disk tribometer with simultaneous recording of acoustic emission (AE) and vibration acceleration. The sliding wear process was found to be determined by dynamic direct and inverse Y-TZP transformations detected by monoclinic and tetragonal X-ray diffraction peak ratios. The AE signals generated under direct and inverse transformations can be used to characterize wear and friction mechanisms as well as direct and inversed sliding-induced phase transformations. The AE signal energy grows with the friction coefficient and the inverse transformation degree. Reduction of the AE signal energy indicates establishing the mild wear stage caused by effective stress-induced direct martensitic transformation. The AE signal median frequency increases in the case of lower friction. Numerical studies of wear subsurface fracture under conditions of stress-induced martensitic transformation were used to elucidate the role played by the phase transformation in Y-TZP and Y-TZP-Al2O3. Martensitic transformation in Y-TZP was described with use of the non-associated dilatant plasticity model. Simulation results particularly show that increase in the value of dilatancy coefficient from 0 to 0.2 is accompanied by 25%−30% reduce in characteristic length and penetration depth of sliding-induced subsurface cracks. As shown the AE may be an effective tool for in-situ monitoring the subsurface wear of materials experiencing both direct and inverse transformations.

  2. Abstract

    Long-term observation of the triboelectric effect has not only proved the feasibility of many novel and useful tribo-devices (e.g., triboelectric nanogenerators), but also constantly motivated the exploration of its mysterious nature. In the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of how the triboelectric process works, a more accurate description of the triboelectric effect and its related parameters and factors is urgently required. This review critically goes through the fundamental theories and basic principles governing the triboelectric process. By investigating the difference between each charging media, the electron, ion, and material transfer is discussed and the theoretical deduction in the past decades is provided. With the information from the triboelectric series, interesting phenomena including cyclic triboelectric sequence and asymmetric triboelectrification are precisely analyzed. Then, the interaction between the tribo-system and its operational environment is analyzed, and a fundamental description of its effects on the triboelectric process and results is summarized. In brief, this review is expected to provide a strong understanding of the triboelectric effect in a more rigorous mathematical and physical sense.

  3. Abstract

    In this paper, the friction behavior at a pin-to-plate interface is investigated. The pin and plate are made of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and steel, respectively, and there is a reciprocating motion at the interface. Governing mathematical models for the relations of design variables and frictions are investigated, and a general procedure is proposed to solve the developed models and predict the friction forces at the interface subjected to given test conditions. Novel models have been developed to represent intrigued friction behaviors affected by various factors such as pin geometrics and finishes, lubrication conditions, and reciprocating speed. The test data from experiments is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed models.

  4. Abstract

    The present study is focused on the evaluation of the tribological performance of novel Ni/hBN and Ni/WS2 composite coatings electrodeposited from an additive-free Watts bath with the assistance of ultrasound. Lubricated and non-lubricated scratch tests were performed on both novel composite coatings and on standard Ni deposits used as a benchmark coating to have an initial idea of the effect of the presence of particles within the Ni matrix. Under lubricated conditions, the performance of the Ni/hBN composite coating was very similar to the benchmark Ni coating, whereas the Ni/WS2 behaved quite differently, as the latter did not only show a lower coefficient of friction, but also prevented the occurrence of stick-slip motion that was clearly observed in the other coatings. Under non-lubricated conditions, whereas the tribological performance of the Ni/hBN composite coating was again very similar to that of the benchmark Ni coating, the Ni/WS2 composite coatings again showed a remarkable enhancement, as the incorporation of the WS2 particles into the Ni coating not only resulted in a lower coefficient of friction, but also in the prevention of coating failure.

  5. Abstract

    MoS2-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) hybrids containing two-dimensional MoS2 and one-dimensional MWCNTs were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal reaction. X-ray-diffraction and transmission-electron-microscopy results demonstrated that MoS2 nanosheets were successfully synthesized, and uniformly anchored on the MWCNTs’ surfaces. Furthermore, the effects of the MoS2-MWCNT hybrids on the tribological performances of polyurethane composite coatings were investigated using a UMT-2MT tribo-tester. Friction and wear test results revealed that the friction coefficient and wear rate of a 3 wt% MoS2-MWCNT-1 filled polyurethane composite coating were reduced by 25.6% and 65.5%, respectively. The outstanding tribological performance of the MoS2-MWCNT-1 reinforced polyurethane composite coating was attributed to the excellent load-carrying capacity of the MWCNTs and good lubricant ability of MoS2. The surface morphologies of the worn surfaces and counterpart ball surfaces were investigated to reveal the wear mechanisms.

  6. Abstract

    Highly nanotwinned (NT) metals have advantages such as high strength, good ductility, favorable corrosion resistance, and thermal stability. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of high density NT microstructures can enhance the tribological properties of metals. However, the influence of the microstructure and the composition of NT alloys on the tribological behavior are not clear. In this work, the sliding wear behavior of fully NT materials, specifically Cu-Al and Cu-Ni alloys, are studied by a nanoscratch technique using a nanoindenter. The effects of microstructure and chemical composition on the wear properties are also studied. The results show that the chemical composition has an obvious influence on the wear resistance and microstructural deformation. For NT Cu-Al alloys, the hardness and sliding wear resistance improve with increased Al content from Cu-2wt.%Al to Cu-6wt.%Al. NT Cu-10wt.%Ni alloy shows even better wear resistance than Cu-6wt.%Al. The microstructural analysis shows that NT Cu alloys with higher wear resistance correspond to a smaller deformation-affected zone. The improvement of sliding wear properties of Cu-Al alloys with higher Al content may be ascribed to their decreased stacking fault energy. NT Cu-Ni alloy shows better wear resistance than Cu-Al alloy, this may be related to the formation of intermetallic compounds in Cu-Al system. This study broadens the knowledge about tribological properties of NT materials and provides a potential method to optimize their sliding wear resistance by altering the chemical composition of NT Cu alloys.

  7. Abstract

    Two N-containing borates, BTES and BMES, were synthesized with dodecyl phenol, 2-(N-containing heterocyclic) ethan-1-ol, boric acid, and dibutylamine, and their tribological properties in rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated using a four-ball tester. The results showed that the load-carrying ability (PB value) of RSO can be improved by 40.9% and 67.9%, respectively, when using 0.5 wt% BTES and BMES. Moreover, the antiwear and friction-reducing performances of the additive-containing oils increased with the additive concentration. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of the worn steel ball surfaces showed that BTES and BMES formed protective films, which contained boron oxide, iron oxide, ferrous sulfate, ferrous sulfide (for BMES), and other organic nitrogen compounds, on the metal surfaces. The better load-carrying and antiwear performances of BMES than those of BTES might be due to their different sulfur contents, which result in different tribochemical reaction films on the contact surfaces. The oxidation stability tests showed that BTES and BMES possessed synergistic antioxidation activity with N-phenyl-α-naphthylamine (T531), and consequently, the oxidation activation energy of the oil sample increased by 77.85% and 82.19%, respectively, compared with that of RSO when the oil sample contained 0.05 wt% BTES/BMES and 0.25% T531.

  8. Abstract

    To reduce harmful sulfur content in lubricant additives, making use of isosterism has been shown to be an effective strategy. When thiobenzothiazole compounds were used as templates, the exchange of sulfur atoms in the thiazole ring with oxygen atoms and NH groups produced twelve isosteres. Similarly, 2-benzothiazole- S-carboxylic acid esters were used as template molecules to produce six isosteres. About 30% of the isosteres exhibited a satisfactory deviation of ±5% relative to the template, ignoring the specific changes in the base oils, the differences in molecular structure, and the friction or wear properties. The template molecules and isosteres in triisodecyl trimellitate exhibited better tribological properties than in trimethylolpropane trioleate or bis(2- ethylhexyl) adipate. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA)- and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA)-quantitative structure tribo-ability relationship (QSTR) models were employed to study the correlation of molecular structures between the base oils and additives. The models indicate that the higher the structural similarities of the base oils and additives are, the more synergetic the molecular force fields of the lubricating system are; the molecular force fields creating synergistic effects will improve tribological performance.

  9. Abstract

    The film forming condition may transit into thin film lubrication (TFL) at high speeds when it is under severe starvation. Central film thicknesses and film thickness profiles are obtained via a technique of relative optical interference intensity. These profiles show a critical film thickness lower than which the absolute values of the film thickness gradient against speed or time decrease. It is possible to be in the thin film lubrication mode under such conditions. The high speed flow drives the lubricant molecules to rearrange in TFL and critical film thickness higher than 100 nm is achieved. The viscosity is one of the main factors controlling the decreasing rate and the critical film thickness. This paper is designed to investigate the thin film lubrication behavior at high speeds.

  10. Abstract

    Polymer tribology is a fast growing area owing to increasing applications of polymers and polymer composites in industry, transportation, and many other areas of economy. Surface forces are very important for polymer contact, but the real origin of such forces has not been fully investigated. Strong adhesive interaction between polymers leads to an increase in the friction force, and hence, the asperities of the material may be removed to form wear particles or transfer layers on the counterface. The theory of polymer adhesion has not been completely elucidated yet and several models of adhesion have been proposed from the physical or chemical standpoints. This paper is focused on the research efforts on polymer adhesion with emphasis on adhesion mechanisms, which are very important in the analysis of polymer friction and wear.

  11. Abstract

    The combined effect of the use of carbon fiber and seawater and the molecular structure on the tribological behavior of various polymer materials under natural seawater lubrication was investigated. After the investigation, the wear morphology of the contact surface was observed by a laser scanning confocal microscope, and the texture of the wear scars and tracks were presented in 3D profiles. Moreover, the mechanism of mixed lubrication and wear resistance was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the friction coefficient of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRPEEK) is the lowest and fluctuates at approximately 0.11. Moreover, the seven polymer materials in ascending order of friction coefficients are CFRPEEK, carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-imide, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyoxymethylene, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin, and glass fiber–epoxy resin. More critically, the simultaneous incorporation of deposition, polymeric scrap, hydrophilic groups, and seawater resulted in a decrease in the friction and wear of polymer materials under seawater lubrication. This observation implies that a synergistic friction-reducing and wear-resistant effect exists between carbon fiber, seawater, and the molecular structure of PEEK. As a result, a highly effective polymer material was discovered, CFRPEEK, which has the lowest friction coefficient of 0.11 and lowest wear rate of 2 × 10–5 mm3·(N·m)−1 among the polymer materials; this validates the selection of dual friction pairs for seawater hydraulic components.

  12. Abstract

    Owing to the increasing demand for tribological brakes for space applications, the development of novel materials and advanced technologies is necessary. This paper presents the design, characterization, and realization of powder metallurgy processed metal-matrix friction materials intended for the above-mentioned tribological brakes. Selecting appropriate ingredients, which provides an effective way to tailor the properties of the friction material, is evolving as a strategy to meet the design requirements. The tribological behaviors of the friction material are experimentally investigated under different conditions, and special attention is focused on the vacuum tribology. Examinations and analyses of the friction surface and subsurface corroborate the wear mechanism. In addition, the erosion resistances of the friction material are evaluated by exposure tests of ultraviolet irradiation and atomic oxygen. Finally, present and potential space applications of the friction material are also introduced based on experimental studies.

  13. Abstract

    Unlike most of the conventional ionic liquids (ILs) derived from non-renewable resources, five environmentally friendly ILs ([Ch][AA] ILs) derived from amino acids (AAs) and choline (Ch) were synthesized using biomaterials by a simple, green route: acid–base reaction of Ch and AAs. The thermal and corrosion properties, as well as viscosity, of the prepared ILs were examined. The results revealed that the anion structure of ILs plays a dominant role in their thermal and viscosity behavior. These ILs exhibited less corrosion toward copper, related to their halogen-, sulfur-, and phosphorus-free characteristics. The tribological behavior of the synthesized ILs was examined using a Schwingungs Reibung und Verschleiss tester, and the results indicated that these ILs exhibit good friction-reducing and anti-wear properties as lubricants for steel/steel contact. Results from energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the good tribological properties of [Ch][AA] ILs are related to the formation of a physically adsorbed film on the metal surface during friction.

  14. Abstract

    The effect of galvanically induced potentials on the friction and wear behavior of a 1RK91 stainless steel regarding to tribocorrosion was investigated using an oscillating ball-on-disk tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. The aim of this investigation is to develop a water-based lubricant. Therefore 1 molar sodium chloride (NaCl) and 1% 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C2mim][Cl] water solutions were used. Tribological performance at two galvanically induced potentials was compared with the non-polarized state: cathodic potential-coupling with pure aluminum- and anodic potential-coupling with pure copper. Frictional and electrochemical response was recorded during the tests. In addition, wear morphology and chemical composition of the steel were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively.

    The galvanically induced cathodic polarization of the stainless steel surface results in electrochemical corrosion protection and the formation of a tribolayer. Cations from the electrolyte (sodium Na+ and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium [C2mim]+) interact and adhere on the surface. These chemical interactions lead to considerably reduced wear using 1 NaCl (86%) and 1% 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C2mim][Cl] (74%) compared to the nonpolarized system. In addition, mechanical and corrosive part of wear was identified using this electrochemical technique. Therefore this method describes a promising method to develop water-based lubricants for technical applications.

  15. Abstract

    The process of a cluster-containing water jet impinging on a monocrystalline silicon substrate was studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that as the standoff distance increases, the jet will gradually diverge. As a result, the solidified water film between the cluster and the substrate becomes “thicker” and “looser”. The “thicker” and “looser” water film will then consume more input energy to achieve complete solidification, resulting in the stress region and the high-pressure region of the silicon substrate under small standoff distances to be significantly larger than those under large standoff distances. Therefore, the degree of damage sustained by the substrate will first experience a small change and then decrease quickly as the standoff distance increases. In summary, the occurrence and maintenance of complete solidification of the confined water film between the cluster and the substrate plays a decisive role in the level of damage formation on the silicon substrate. These findings are helpful for exploring the mechanism of an abrasive water jet.

  16. Abstract

    In this study, the lubrication performance of the crank pin bearing in a marine two–stroke diesel engine is evaluated to investigate the adhesional failure on the crank pin bearing. A numerical algorithm for the lubrication analysis considering motion analysis of the crank pin system is developed. The film pressure and thickness for three clearances and three lubricant temperatures are calculated. The results show that the lubricant temperature has a higher effect on film thickness than clearance. In terms of the film parameter, the operating condition that can result in solid–solid contact is investigated. We also suggest the desirable operating conditions of clearance and lubricant temperature to prevent the solid–solid contact.

  17. Abstract

    The objective of this study was to investigate the grease-lubricated film-forming mechanisms in the finite line contact and to improve the grease-lubricated finite line contact’s film-forming capacity. An elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) test rig with two interferometry microscopes, which could simultaneously monitor two different contact locations in the finite line contact, was constructed in order to study the influences of the grease thickener formulation on the film thickness and lubrication condition. By using the relative light intensity method, the thickness maps of the grease-lubricated film were calculated from the interferometer images captured by the two microscopes. The test results revealed that the grease thickener’s formulation had remarkable effects on film formation and the perturbation of film thickness. For the lithium-based grease, the film’s thickness near the two ends of the roller was prone to severe perturbation caused by the conglomeration of clumps that were hard to shear. For the aluminum-complex-based grease, the fibers tended to accumulate in the middle of the roller rather than at the two ends. The urea-based grease could be easily sheared into smaller particles. In addition to the straight-line profile rollers, the logarithmic profile rollers were tested and found to effectively enhance the axial grease flow, increase the axial shear stress, and thus shear more fibers into particles within the contact area.

  18. Abstract

    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of contact pressure and sliding speed on the coefficient of friction and wear of an activated carbon-epoxy composite derived from palm kernel under dry sliding conditions. A wear mode map approach was employed to identify the transitions from mild to severe wear of the composite. The dry sliding test was executed by utilizing a ball-on-disc tribometer at different contact pressures and sliding speeds with a constant sliding distance and operating temperature. The results showed that, regardless of the sliding speed, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the composite increased drastically when a critical limit of contact pressure is exceeded. As for the sliding speed, both the friction coefficient and wear rate increased first and thereafter decreased at a higher speed of 500 rpm. A wear mode map is proposed to classify the boundary from mild to severe wear regimes. The predominant wear failures identified include micro-crack, fine grooves, debonding, delamination, debris, broken carbon, and fracture.

  19. Abstract

    The plant cuticle is a complex mixture of omnipresent, commonly monofunctional, fatty acid derivatives and taxon-specific, generally bifunctional, specialty compounds. This study explored expanded applications for these substances. Four types of plant cuticles were distilled from leaves and the resulting lipid mixtures were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These were then used as additives for a synthetic ester lubricant. A reciprocating friction and wear testing machine was utilized to investigate the resulting tribological properties. The worn surfaces of the lower discs were observed and analyzed using optical microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results reveal that cuticular waxes can modify the friction properties of the base oil. Furthermore, cuticular waxes demonstrate better performance when compared to the commercially available additive molybdenum dithiocarbamates. A protective adsorption film was identified as the reason for the improved friction reduction and anti-wear properties of the lubricant on the friction pair. This study provides a reference for the study of new types of non-sulfur, phosphorus, and other active element additives and demonstrates considerable potential for the economical utilization of plant leaf waxes.

  20. Abstract

    In this study, based on the classical Archard adhesion wear theory, a three-dimensional finite element model was established, with the aim of simulating the failure process of self-lubricating spherical plain bearings in the swinging wear condition. The results show that the self-lubricating spherical plain bearings go through two different stages during the wear process, namely, initial wear stage and stable wear stage. Because the large contact points wear out during the initial wear stage, the maximum contact pressure decreases as the test period increases. The relatively larger wear depth region shows elliptical distribution, and the maximum distribution appears in the central contact area. The wear depth reaches 0.974 mm after swinging 25,000 times. PTFE fibers, which possess a good friction performance but poor abrasion resistance, abundantly exist on the friction surfaces of the fabric liner. Consequently, the friction torque during the initial wear stage is slightly smaller than the friction torque during the stable wear stage; however, the wear rate during the initial wear stage is high. The reliability and effectiveness of the finite element model are verified by experiment. The developed finite element model can be used for the analysis of the wear mechanisms of bearings and the prediction of the service life of bearings.