Friction

  1. Abstract

    Carbon fibers reinforced lithium aluminosilicate matrix composites (Cf/LAS) were prepared by slurry infiltration combined with a hot press procedure. The friction, wear behavior, and wear mechanisms of Cf/LAS composites under dry sliding conditions were investigated. The results show that the coefficient of friction (COF) initially increased with the increase in carbon fiber content, and reached the maximum value of 0.20 for the 33%Cf/LAS composite. The COF increased sharply with increasing sample temperature from RT to 300 °C. The COF remained stable in the temperature range of 300–500 °C. The two wear mechanisms of LAS glassceramics are fatigue wear and abrasive wear. The Cf/LAS composites demonstrate slight spalling and shallow scratches. These results show that carbon fibers improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of Cf/LAS composites.

  2. Abstract

    Wear tests are essential in the design of parts intended to work in environments that subject a part to high wear. Wear tests involve high cost and lengthy experiments, and require special test equipment. The use of machine learning algorithms for wear loss quantity predictions is a potentially effective means to eliminate the disadvantages of experimental methods such as cost, labor, and time. In this study, wear loss data of AISI 1020 steel coated by using a plasma transfer arc welding (PTAW) method with FeCrC, FeW, and FeB powders mixed in different ratios were obtained experimentally by some of the researchers in our group. The mechanical properties of the coating layers were detected by microhardness measurements and dry sliding wear tests. The wear tests were performed at three different loads (19.62, 39.24, and 58.86 N) over a sliding distance of 900 m. In this study, models have been developed by using four different machine learning algorithms (an artificial neural network (ANN), extreme learning machine (ELM), kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM), and weighted extreme learning machine (WELM)) on the data set obtained from the wear test experiments. The R2 value was calculated as 0.9729 in the model designed with WELM, which obtained the best performance [with 11among the models evaluated.

  3. Abstract

    In order to improve the cutting performance in broaching, the lubrication and cleaning effects offered by water-based cutting fluids with green additives need to be studied from the viewpoint of green manufacturing. Therefore, water-based solutions with castor oil, surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, LAS), and nanographite were prepared by ultrasonic agitation and sprayed into the zone of broaching via atomization. The performances of the cutting fluids, in terms of the viscosity, specific heat, wetting angle, and droplet size, were evaluated to discuss their effects on the broaching load. Among the fluids, the addition of LAS into oil-in-water (WO-S), where its cutting fluid with 10 wt.% castor oil and 1.5 wt.% surfactant, exhibited the lowest broaching force. With regard to the lubricating and cleaning mechanisms, WO-S has good wettability and permeability, and hence, can lubricate the cutting edge of the tool to decrease the cutting load, cool the cutting edge to keep it sturdy, and clean the surface of the cutting edge to keep it sharp. The results reveal that the simultaneous addition of castor oil and LAS had remarkable effects on the lubrication and cleaning, and resulted in a broaching load reduction of more than 10% compared to commercial cutting fluids. However, the addition of nanographite could not improve the lubrication owing to its agglomeration.

  4. Abstract

    Tailoring a material’s properties for low friction and little wear in a strategic fashion is a long-standing goal of materials tribology. Plastic deformation plays a major role when metals are employed in a sliding contact; therefore, the effects of stacking fault energy and mode of dislocation glide need to be elucidated. Here, we investigated how a decrease in the stacking fault energy affects friction, wear, and the ensuing sub-surface microstructure evolution. Brass samples with increasing zinc concentrations of 5, 15, and 36 wt% were tested in non-lubricated sphere-on-plate contacts with a reciprocating linear tribometer against Si3N4 spheres. Increasing the sliding distance from 0.5 (single trace) to 5,000 reciprocating cycles covered different stages in the lifetime of a sliding contact. Comparing the results among the three alloys revealed a profound effect of the zinc concentration on the tribological behavior. CuZn15 and CuZn36 showed similar friction and wear results, whereas CuZn5 had a roughly 60% higher friction coefficient (COF) than the other two alloys. CuZn15 and CuZn36 had a much smaller wear rate than CuZn5. Wavy dislocation motion in CuZn5 and CuZn15 allowed for dislocation self-organization into a horizontal line about 150 nm beneath the contact after a single trace of the sphere. This feature was absent in CuZn36 where owing to planar dislocation slip band-like features under a 45° angle to the surface were identified. These results hold the promise to help guide the future development of alloys tailored for specific tribological applications.

  5. Abstract

    In this study, the gelling ability and lubrication performance of N-octadecyl-D-gluconamides (NOG) in liquid paraffin (LP), pentaerythritol oleate (PE-OA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) oils were systemically investigated. The NOG, which could gelate the investigated oils, was successfully synthesized by a one-step method. The prepared gel lubricants were completely thermoreversible and exhibited improved thermal stability, according to the thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) reports. Rheological tests confirmed that the NOG gelator could effectively regulate the rheological behavior of the base oils. Tribological evaluation suggested that NOG, as an additive in the three types of base oils, could remarkably reduce the friction and wear in steel contacts. A plausible mechanism for the improved performances was proposed based on the mechanical strength of the gels and the formation of the boundary-lubricating film on the worn surface. The results indicated that NOG is a potential gelator for preparing gel lubricants with excellent tribological properties and environment-friendly characteristics.

  6. Abstract

    The existence of narrow and brittle white etching layers (WELs) on the rail surface is often linked with the formation of rail defects such as squats and studs, which play the key roles in rail surface degradation and tribological performance. In the present study, a systematic investigation on stress/strain distribution and fatigue life of the WEL during wheel-rail rolling contact was conducted based on a numerical model considering the realistic wheel geometry. This is the first study considering the influence of rail materials, loading pressure, frictional condition, WEL geometry (a/b), and slip ratio (Sr) in the practical service conditions at the same time. The results revealed much higher residual stress in WEL than in rail matrix. Stress changes along the rail depth matched with the previously reported microstructure evolutions. The current work revealed that the maximum difference in contact stress between the wheel passages of rail matrix and the WEL region (noted as stress variation) rises with the increase of loading pressure, the value of a/b, and Sr; but drops with the friction coefficient (μ). In addition, a critical length-depth ratio of 5 for a/b has been found. The fatigue parameter, FP, of the WEL decreased quickly with the length-depth ratio when it was less than 5 and then increased slightly when it was larger than 5. This study also revealed that the fatigue life of the WEL was reduced for high strength head hardened (HH) rail compared with standard carbon (SC) rail.

  7. Abstract

    The topic of superlubricity is attracting considerable interest around the world while humanity is facing an energy crisis. Since various liquid superlubricity systems can be commonly achieved on the macroscale in ambient conditions, it is considered an effective solution to reduce unnecessary energy and material losses. However, certain practical problems such as low load-bearing pressure, dependence on hydrogen ions, and relatively long running-in processes still limit its widespread application. Two-dimensional (2D) nano-additives with ultrathin longitudinal dimensions can lower the shear resistance between sliding solid surfaces, and thus further optimize the applied conditions. In this review, the latest studies on 2D nano-additives with a combination of various water-based lubricants in the state of superlubricity are reported, typically including black phosphorus (BP), graphene oxide (GO), and layered double hydroxide. During the sliding process, composite lubricants effectively improved the load capacity (up to 600 MPa), reduced wear, and accelerated the running-in period (within 1,000 s) of the liquid superlubricity system. Both macromechanical experiments and microscopic tests are conducted to precisely analyze various interactions at the interfaces of the nano-additives and solid surfaces. These interactions can be described as tribochemical reactions, physical protection, and adsorption enhancement, and improved wear resistance. This review provides better guidance for applying 2D nanomaterials in liquid superlubricity systems.

  8. Abstract

    Hip joint replacements represent the most effective way of treatment for patients suffering from joint diseases. Despite the rapid improvement of implant materials over the last few decades, limited longevity associated with wear-related complications persists as the main drawback. Therefore, improved tribological performance is required in order to extend the service life of replacements. The effect of surface texturing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cup was investigated in the present study. Unique tilling method was utilized for manufacturing the dimples with controlled diameter and depths on the contact surface of the cup. The experiments with four commercial femoral components and two model lubricants were realized. The main attention was paid to a coefficient of friction considering the differences between the original and the dimpled cups. Results showed remarkable lowering of friction, in general. Focusing on the simulated human synovial fluid, friction was reduced by 40% (alumina ceramic), 38.8% (zirconia toughened ceramic), 25.5% (metal), and 9.9% (oxinium). In addition, the dimples helped to keep the friction stable without fluctuations. To conclude, the paper brings a new insight into frictional behaviour of the hip replacements during running-in phase which is essential for overall implant lifespan. It is believed that proper surface texturing may rapidly improve the life quality of millions of patients and may lead to considerable financial savings.

  9. Abstract

    Rock drilling is an essential operation in mining industries. Temperature at the bit-rock interface plays a major role in the wear rate of the drill bit. This paper primarily focuses on the wear rate of tungsten carbide (WC) drill bit and the interrelationship between temperature and wear rate during rotary drilling operations conducted using a computer numerical control (CNC) machine. The interrelationship between the temperature and wear rate was studied with regard to three types of rock samples, i.e., fine-grained sandstone (FG) of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) that is 17.83 MPa, medium-grained sandstone (MG) of UCS that is 13.70 MPa, and fine-grained sandstone pink (FGP) of UCS that is 51.67 MPa. Wear rate of the drill bit has been measured using controlled parameters, i.e., drill bit diameter (6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 mm), spindle speed (250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 rpm), and penetration rate (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm/min), respectively. Further, a fully instrumented laboratory drilling set-up was utilized. The weight of each bit was measured after the bit reached 30 mm depth in each type of the rock sample. Furthermore, effects of the bit-rock interface temperature and operational parameters on wear rate of the drill bits were examined. The results show that the wear rate of drill bits increased with an increase in temperature for all the bit-rock combinations considered. This is due to the silica content of the rock sample, which leads to an increase in the frictional heat between the bit-rock interfaces. However, in case of medium-grained sandstone, the weight percentage (wt%) of SiO2 is around 7.23 wt%, which presents a very low wear rate coefficient of 6.33×10−2 mg/(N·m). Moreover, the temperature rise during drilling is also minimum, i.e., around 74 °C, in comparison to that of fine-grained sandstone and fine-grained sandstone pink. In addition, this paper develops the relationship between temperature and wear rate characteristics by employing simple linear regression analysis.

  10. Abstract

    The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) model is commonly used to predict the contact fatigue life when the sliding is insignificant in contact surfaces. However, many studies reveal that the sliding, compared to the rolling state, can lead to a considerable reduction of the fatigue life and an excessive increase of the pitting area, which result from the microscopic stress cycle growth caused by the sliding of the asperity contact. This suggests that fatigue life in the rolling-sliding condition can be overestimated based only on the RCF model. The rubbing surfaces of spiral bevel gears are subject to typical rolling-sliding motion. This paper aims to study the mechanism of the micro stress cycle along the meshing path and provide a reasonable method for predicting the fatigue life in spiral bevel gears. The microscopic stress cycle equation is derived with the consideration of gear meshing parameters. The combination of the RCF model and asperity stress cycle is developed to calculate the fatigue life in spiral bevel gears. We find that the contact fatigue life decreases significantly compared with that obtained from the RCF model. There is strong evidence that the microscopic stress cycle is remarkably increased by the rolling-sliding motion of the asperity contact, which is consistent with the experimental data in previous literature. In addition, the fatigue life under different assembling misalignments are investigated and the results demonstrate the important role of misalignments on fatigue life.

  11. Abstract

    Elastomeric materials show promise as potential micro-fillers in brake linings. They can provide vibration damping and acoustic advantages in intermittent and abrupt impact applications such as braking. The elastomeric material can be salvaged from non-biodegradable automotive tires, thereby providing an opportunity to reuse materials that will otherwise be discarded in landfills. Both tribological and thermomechanical performances of the waste tire rubber were assessed to determine their potential for use as micro-fillers in the brake linings of commercial vehicles with a gross weight less than 16 tons. Accordingly, the brake lining materials were fabricated with fine waste tire rubber particulates (WTRPs) as the micro-fillers, phenolic-R resin as the binder, graphite as the dry lubricant, laterite as the co-filler, and coconut coir for natural fiber reinforcement. The effects of increasing the WTRP weight fraction on the brake response of the linings were analyzed, and the different compositions were benchmarked against a commercial brake lining. Mechanical characterization comprising compressive strength, hardness, density, and porosity studies were carried out. Frictional and wear characteristics of the linings were analyzed using a rotary tribometer with simultaneous thermal monitoring. The manufactured lining with 15 wt% WTRPs exhibited a mean friction coefficient of ~0.38, a specific volumetric loss rate of 1,662 µm3/(N·m), and improved thermal response. Using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wear surface morphology studies compared the relative development of primary and secondary plateaus and revealed the redistribution of wear debris, leading to the stability of the coefficient of friction.

  12. Abstract

    Carburized gears are widely used in geared machines such as wind turbines. Contact fatigue problems occur in engineering practice, reducing reliabilities of machines. Contact fatigue failures are related to many factors, such as gradients of mechanical properties of the hardening layer. In this work, an elastic-plastic contact model of a carburized gear is developed based on the finite element method to evaluate contact fatigue failure risk, considering variations in hardness and strength. The Dang Van multiaxial equivalent stress is calculated via Python coding within the Abaqus framework. The gradient of yield strength along the depth from case to core is considered. The concept of local material fatigue failure risk is defined to evaluate the probability of pitting failure. The effects of design factors, such as the case hardening depth (CHD), surface hardness, and contact pressure on fatigue failure risk, are studied. As the CHD increases or the surface hardness decreases, the risk of deep spalling failure reduces. The increase in surface hardness leads to a decreased risk of pitting failure, while the variation in CHD hardly affects the pitting failure risk.

  13. Abstract

    Polymer gears are used extensively in various applications. However, durability issues have been emerging because of friction at gear tooth contact areas. To extend the lifetime of polymer gears, a low-frictional coating has been considered as a possible strategy. In this study, a finite element simulation method was performed to investigate the contact stress between a pair of coated polymer gears. The simulation included various friction coefficients (COFs) for studying the effects of friction during the operation. Numerical results revealed that the friction causes the contact stress to shift over the roll angle, which is attributed to the direction of the sliding friction based on a free-body diagram. We also investigated the effects of coating and found that a thin coating has little effect on the bulk deformation behavior of the gear. Moreover, the stress distribution in the coating at the pitch point was investigated as the COF increased. Under zero friction, three notable stress regions were observed: 1) the center of the surface, 2) the end of the contact, and 3) the overall contact area. As COF was increased in the micro-slip region of the contact interface, both tensile and compressive stresses in the coating increased. This study provides significant aid to engineers for understanding the stress response of the coating applied to polymer gears to achieve an optimal design.

  14. Abstract

    The processes of degradation of engine oils operated in passenger cars of a uniform fleet of 25 vehicles were analyzed for oxidation content using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. As part of the experiment, the changes in engine oils occurring during actual operation (under conditions which can be described as “harsh”, i.e., short distance driving, frequent starting of the engine, and extended engine idling) have been observed. An evaluation of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of an engine oil sample was presented. The infrared spectra of both fresh and used oils were recorded with the Thermo Nicolett IS5. The tests were conducted according to the Appendix A2 of ASTM 2412. For the used engine oil differentiation process, FTIR spectra were analyzed in the regions of 1,700–2,000 cm−1 and 3,600-3,700 cm−1. The FTIR spectrometry is demonstrated to be effective for the analysis and monitoring of processes of oxidation and shown to provide rapid and accurate information relating to the aging process of engine oils. The results may facilitate decision-making regarding the service life of engine oils. The achieved dependencies can make it possible to upgrade the sensor assembly consisting of an FTIR source.

  15. Abstract

    The effects of friction conditions, such as rotational speed, frictional time, and applied load, on the evolution mechanism of sulfide and sulfate on the top and bottom layers of tribofilm were investigated by total electron yield (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FY) mode X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra in the same beam line (4B7A). The results demonstrated that the top and bottom layers of tribofilms were covered by sulfide and sulfate. The addition of dialkylpentasulfide (DPS) could form complex nonuniform tribofilm. In addition, the friction condition (speed, load, or time) has its unique role in the generation of sulfide and sulfate at a specific depth on the tribofilm surface. The enhancement of friction conditions could promote the sulfur tribochemical reaction in a comparatively large range and alter the relative intensity of sulfurization and the sulfur-oxidizing process.

  16. Abstract

    To reveal nonlinear dynamic rules of low viscosity fluid-lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings (TPJBs), the effects of design parameters on journal center orbits and dynamic minimum film thicknesses of water-lubricated TPJBs with and without static loads are investigated. The hydrodynamic bearing force used in the nonlinear dynamic analysis is an approximate analytical solution including the turbulence effect. The results reveal the methods for vibration suppression and load capacity improvement and give an optimal pivot offset and clearance ratio that can maximize the minimum film thickness. The results also show that four-pad TPJBs with loads between pads are preferred due to good dynamic performance and load capacity. This study would provide some guidance for nonlinear design of low viscosity fluid-lubricated TPJBs under dynamic loads.

  17. Abstract

    Polyimide composites have been extensively used as motion components under extreme conditions for their thermal stability and special self-lubricating performance. In the present study, Ag-Mo hybrids as lubricant fillers were incorporated into thermosetting polyimide to prepare a new type of tribo-materials (TPI-1) at high temperature. Comprehensive investigations at different temperatures reveal that the newly developed TPI-1 exhibits a better reduction in friction and wear rate below 100 °C, but all of them increase significantly when the bulk temperature exceeds 250 °C. The wear mechanisms demonstrated that sandwich-like tribofilms with different layers were established at different temperatures, which was further verified by characterization of scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Considering the high-performance TPI coupled with Ag-Mo hybrids, we anticipate that further exploration would provide guidance for designing TPI tribo-materials that would be used at high temperatures.

  18. Abstract

    Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is a type of smart material of which mechanical and electrical properties can be reversibly controlled by the magnetic field. In this study, the influence of the magnetic field on the surface roughness of MRE was studied by the microscopic modeling method, and the influence of controllable characteristics of the MRE surface on its friction properties was analyzed by the macroscopic experimental method. First, on the basis of existing studies, an improved mesoscopic model based on magnetomechanical coupling analysis was proposed. The initial surface morphology of MRE was characterized by the W-M fractal function, and the change process of the surface microstructures of MRE, induced by the magnetic interaction between particles, was studied. Then, after analyzing the simulation results, it is found that with the increase in the magnetic field and decrease in the modulus of rubber matrix, the surface of MRE changes more significantly, and the best particle volume fraction is within 7.5%–9%. Furthermore, through experimental observation, it is found that the height of the convex peak on the surface of MRE decreases significantly with the action of the magnetic field, resulting in a reduction in the surface roughness. Consistent with the simulation results, a particle volume fraction of 10% corresponds to a maximum change of 14%. Finally, the macroscopic friction experiment results show that the friction coefficients of MREs with different particle volume fractions all decrease with the decrease in surface roughness under the magnetic field. When the particle volume fraction is 10%, the friction coefficient can decrease by 24.7% under a magnetic field of 400 mT, which is consistent with the trend of surface roughness changes. This shows that the change in surface morphology with the effect of the magnetic field is an important factor in the control of MRE friction properties by magnetic field.

  19. Abstract

    The elastic loading behaviour of rough surfaces is derived based on the physical understanding of the contact phenomena, where the pressure distribution is analytically obtained without any negative values or convergence problems, thus the evolution of the contact behaviour is obtained in a semi-analytical manner. Numerical results obtained by the proposed approach facilitate the understanding of the contact behaviour in the following aspects: 1) the ratio of contact area to load decreases with an increase in real contact area; 2) normal approach-load relationship is approximated by an exponential decay under relatively small loads and a linear decay under relatively large loads; and 3) average gap shows an exponential relationship with load only in moderate load range.

  20. Abstract

    In recent years, attempts to improve the mechanical properties of composites have increased remarkably owing to the inadequate utilization of matrices in demanding technological systems where efficiency, durability, and environmental compatibility are the key requirements. The search for novel materials that can potentially have enhanced mechanical properties continues. Recent studies have demonstrated that two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can act as excellent reinforcements because they possess high modulus of elasticity, high strength, and ultralow friction. By incorporating 2D nanomaterials in a composite, 2D nanomaterial-based composites (2DNBCs) have been developed. In view of this, a critical review of recent mechanical and tribological studies based on 2DNBCs has been undertaken. Matrices such as polymers, ceramics, and metals, as well as most of the representative 2D nanomaterial reinforcements such as graphene, boron nitride (BN), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) have been included in this review. Their preparation strategies, intrinsic mechanical properties, friction and lubrication performances, strengthening mechanisms, influencing factors, and potential applications have been comprehensively discussed. A brief summary and prospects are given in the final part, which would be useful in designing and fabricating advanced 2D nanocomposites in the future.