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سال ۱۳۹۷ سال حمایت از کالای ایرانی گرامی باد

Friction

  1. Abstract

    In the classical study of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) which does not employ real, measurable viscosity in analysis, the possibility of a glass transition has not been considered in many years. Indeed, the two rheological assumptions of classical EHL, the Newtonian inlet and the equivalence of a traction curve to a flow curve, would not have persisted so long had the pressure dependence of the viscosity been accurately stated. With the recent appearance of viscosity obtained from viscometers in EHL analysis, the possibility of a glass transition in the contact should be reexamined, especially for the fragile traction fluids. This article employs published data for a synthetic cycloaliphatic hydrocarbon to estimate the glass transition viscosity so that, when using real viscosities in EHL simulations, the state of the liquid may be assessed. Far into the glassy state the liquid should be treated as an elastic solid with a yield stress.

  2. Abstract

    This paper presents experimental rigs of the Research Centre for the Mechanics of Turbomachinery of the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering of the University of Pisa. Most of them were designed and constructed to allow investigations of real machine components and to furnish more realistic results than basic tribological test rigs.

    Tilting pad journal bearings, as well as gears and complete gearboxes for advanced industrial applications, can be tested using the rigs described in the paper. A novel test rig with a power rating of approximately 1 MW allows investigations of the static and dynamic characteristics of high-performance tilting pad journal bearings for turbomachinery. A twin disc machine and closed loop gear test rig are used to investigate the different kinds of wear mechanisms occurring in gears. Functional and durability tests on planetary gearboxes for new turbo-fan engines could be performed using another novel large test rig. A circulating power configuration was adopted for most of the rigs so that only the power needed to cover the friction losses has to be supplied, while the circulating power can be more than 20 times higher. All the test rigs include very complex load applications and lubrication plants, as well as dedicated control and data acquisition systems.

    The rigs and related plants were designed and constructed through strong and fruitful collaborations between the university and some large and small–medium companies. Despite some limitations in the publication of the results as a result of the industrial sensitivity of the data, the synergy among these different actors was stimulating and fundamental for the realization of new advanced industrial applications.

  3. Abstract

    To enhance the lubricating and extreme pressure (EP) performance of base oils, two types of oil-soluble ionic liquids (ILs) with similar anion albeit dissimilar cations were synthesized. The physical properties of the prepared ILs were measured. The anticorrosion properties of ILs were assessed by conducting corrosion tests on steel discs and copper strips, which revealed the remarkable anticorrosion properties of the ILs in comparison with those of the commercial additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). The tribological properties of the two ILs as additives for poly-α-olefin-10 (PAO10) with various mass concentrations were investigated. The tribological test results indicate that these ILs as additives are capable of reducing friction and wear of sliding contacts remarkably as well as enhance the EP performance of blank PAO10. Under similar test conditions, these IL additives exhibit higher lubricating and anti-wear (AW) performances than those of ZDDP based additive package in PAO10. Subsequently, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were conducted to study the lubricating mechanism of the two ILs. The results indicate that the formation of tribochemical film plays the most crucial role in enhancing the lubricating and AW behavior of the mixture lubricants.

  4. Abstract

    In many industrial devices, impact-sliding wear is caused by a variety of complex vibrations between the contacted interfaces. Under actual conditions, impact and sliding motions do not occur in only one direction, and different complex impact-sliding motions exist on the tribology surfaces. In this study, an impact-sliding wear test rig is developed to investigate the wear effect of different complex motions. Using this rig, multi-type impact-sliding wear effects are realized and measured, such as those derived from unidirectional, reciprocating, and multi-mode combination motions. These three types of impact–sliding wear running behavior are tested and the wear damage mechanism is discussed.

  5. Abstract

    The plant cuticle is a complex mixture of omnipresent, commonly monofunctional, fatty acid derivatives and taxon-specific, generally bifunctional, specialty compounds. This study explored expanded applications for these substances. Four types of plant cuticles were distilled from leaves and the resulting lipid mixtures were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These were then used as additives for a synthetic ester lubricant. A reciprocating friction and wear testing machine was utilized to investigate the resulting tribological properties. The worn surfaces of the lower discs were observed and analyzed using optical microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results reveal that cuticular waxes can modify the friction properties of the base oil. Furthermore, cuticular waxes demonstrate better performance when compared to the commercially available additive molybdenum dithiocarbamates. A protective adsorption film was identified as the reason for the improved friction reduction and anti-wear properties of the lubricant on the friction pair. This study provides a reference for the study of new types of non-sulfur, phosphorus, and other active element additives and demonstrates considerable potential for the economical utilization of plant leaf waxes.

  6. Abstract

    Long-term observation of the triboelectric effect has not only proved the feasibility of many novel and useful tribo-devices (e.g., triboelectric nanogenerators), but also constantly motivated the exploration of its mysterious nature. In the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of how the triboelectric process works, a more accurate description of the triboelectric effect and its related parameters and factors is urgently required. This review critically goes through the fundamental theories and basic principles governing the triboelectric process. By investigating the difference between each charging media, the electron, ion, and material transfer is discussed and the theoretical deduction in the past decades is provided. With the information from the triboelectric series, interesting phenomena including cyclic triboelectric sequence and asymmetric triboelectrification are precisely analyzed. Then, the interaction between the tribo-system and its operational environment is analyzed, and a fundamental description of its effects on the triboelectric process and results is summarized. In brief, this review is expected to provide a strong understanding of the triboelectric effect in a more rigorous mathematical and physical sense.

  7. Abstract

    The present paper is devoted to a theoretical analysis of sliding friction under the influence of in-plane oscillations perpendicular to the sliding direction. Contrary to previous studies of this mode of active control of friction, we consider the influence of the stiffness of the tribological contact in detail and show that the contact stiffness plays a central role for small oscillation amplitudes. In the present paper we consider the case of a displacement-controlled system, where the contact stiffness is small compared to the stiffness of the measuring system. It is shown that in this case the macroscopic coefficient of friction is a function of two dimensionless parameters—a dimensionless sliding velocity and dimensionless oscillation amplitude. In the limit of very large oscillation amplitudes, known solutions previously reported in the literature are reproduced. The region of small amplitudes is described for the first time in this paper.

  8. Abstract

    In this study, experimental wear losses under different loads and sliding distances of AISI 1020 steel surfaces coated with (wt.%) 50FeCrC-20FeW-30FeB and 70FeCrC-30FeB powder mixtures by plasma transfer arc welding were determined. The dataset comprised 99 different wear amount measurements obtained experimentally in the laboratory. The linear regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), and Gaussian process regression (GPR) algorithms are used for predicting wear quantities. A success rate of 0.93 was obtained from the LR algorithm and 0.96 from the SVM and GPR algorithms.

  9. Abstract

    This study fabricated textures on the stator surface of a traveling wave ultrasonic motor (USM) using laser and investigated the tribological behavior of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite friction material and stator. Initially, the effect of textures with different densities was tested. As the results suggested, the generation of large transfer films of PTFE composite was prevented by laser surface texturing, and adhesive wear reduced notably despite the insignificant decrease in load capacity and efficiency. Next, the 100-h test was performed to further study the effects of texture. Worn surface and wear debris were observed to discuss wear mechanisms. After 100 h, the form of wear debris changed into particles. The wear mechanisms of friction material sliding against the textured stator were small size fatigue and slight abrasive wear. The wear height of friction material decreased from 3.8 μm to 1.1 μm. This research provides a method to reduce the wear of friction materials used in travelling wave USMs.

  10. Abstract

    Understanding the microstructural and tribo-chemical processes during tribological loading is of utmost importance to further improve the tribological behavior of metals. In this study, the friction, wear and tribo-chemical behavior of Ni with different initial microstructures (nanocrystalline, bi-modal, coarse-grained) is investigated under dry sliding conditions. In particular, the interplay be-tween frictional response, microstructural evolution and tribo-oxidation is considered. Friction tests are carried out using ball-on-disk experiments with alumina balls as counter-bodies, varying the load between 1 and 5 N. The microstructural evolution as well as the chemical reactions beneath the samples’ surface is investigated by means of cross-sections. The samples with finer microstructures show a faster run-in and lower maximum values of the coefficient of friction (COF) which can be attributed to higher oxidation kinetics and a higher hardness. It is observed that with increasing sliding cycles, a stable oxide layer is formed. Furthermore, initially coarse-grained samples show grain refinement, whereas initially finer microstructures undergo grain coarsening converging towards the same superficial grain size after 2,000 sliding cycles. Consequently, the experimental evidence supports that, irrespective of the initial microstructure, after a certain deformation almost identical steady-state COF values for all samples are achieved.

  11. Abstract

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and onion-like carbon (OLC) nanoparticles were synthesized from natural graphite powder and candle soot, respectively, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The lubricating performances of GO and OLC as lubricant additives in water were comparatively evaluated using a ball-on-disc tribometer. The effects of sand blasting of a steel disc on its morphology and tribological property were evaluated. The results show that the two nanomaterials, GO and OLC, when used as lubricant additives in water effectively reduce the friction and wear of the sliding discs, which is independent of the disc surface treatment. On applying heavy loads, it is observed that GO exhibits superior friction-reducing and anti-wear abilities compared to those of OLC—a trace amount of GO can achieve a lubricating ability equivalent to that of an abundant amount of OLC. Furthermore, it is observed that sand blasting cannot improve the wear resistance of the treated steel disc, even though the hardness of the disc increased after the treatment. The possible anti-wear and friction-reducing mechanisms of the GO and OLC as lubricant additives in water are discussed based on results for the wear surfaces obtained by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  12. Abstract

    To investigate the effects of the contact geometry, interfacial friction, and substrate recovery on the behavior of polymer scratching using a conical tip, an analytical model is proposed. The normal stress acting on the contact surface between the tip and the substrate is described as a function of the included angle θ, representing the angle between two planes across the axis of the conical tip, and the attack angle β, representing the angle between the conical surface and the substrate material surface. The effects of the rear contact geometry on the scratch friction between the tip and substrate, represented by recovery angle φ, owing to the instantaneous elastic recovery of the polymer substrate, are also introduced. Validated by the experimental and numerical results from the literature, the proposed analytical model can describe well the scratch coefficient of friction (SCOF), which is defined as the ratio of the tangential force to the normal force. Meaningful guidance is provided to understand the scratch friction behavior.

  13. Abstract

    Due to the widespread use of nanocarbon materials (NCMs), more researchers are studying their tribological performances. In this work, the tribological behaviors of the following five types of NCMs with different geometric shapes were evaluated in a novel oil-in-water system: spherical fullerenes (C60, 0D), tubular multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 1D), sheet graphene oxide (GO, 2D), sheet graphene oxide derivative (Oct-O-GO, 2D), and lamellar graphite (G, 3D). Among these, GO with two types of oxidation degrees, i.e., GO(1), GO(2), and Oct-O-GO(1) were synthesized and characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The load-carrying capacity of the NCM emulsions were evaluated using a four-ball test machine, and the lubrication performances were investigated using a high-frequency reciprocating friction and wear tester with a sliding distance of 1,800 mm under different loads (50 N and 100 N) at 0.5 Hz. The results revealed that the Oct-O-GO(1) emulsion exhibited the best load-carrying capacity, and the best friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to other emulsions. Moreover, the anti-wear advantage was more prominent under high load conditions, whereas the other emulsions exhibited a certain degree of abrasive or adhesive wear. The lubrication mechanism was determined through the analysis of worn surfaces using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed that during frictional sliding, the ingredients in the emulsion can absorb and react with the freshly exposed metal surface to form surface-active films to protect the surfaces from abrasion. Moreover, it was found that the higher the amount of ingredients that contain alkyl and O-H/C=O, the better was the lubrication performance in addition to an increase in the carbon residue in the tribofilm generated on the meal surface.

  14. Abstract

    We propose a model based on extreme value statistics (EVS) and combine it with different models for single-asperity contact, including adhesive and elasto-plastic contacts, to derive a relation between the applied load and the friction force on a rough interface. We determine that, when the summit distribution is Gumbel and the contact model is Hertzian, we obtain the closest conformity with Amonton’s law. The range over which Gumbel distribution mimics Amonton’s law is wider than that of the Greenwood–Williamson (GW) model. However, exact conformity with Amonton’s law is not observed for any of the well-known EVS distributions. Plastic deformations in the contact area reduce the relative change in pressure slightly with Gumbel distribution. Interestingly, when elasto-plastic contact is assumed for the asperities, together with Gumbel distribution for summits, the best conformity with Amonton’s law is achieved. Other extreme value statistics are also studied, and the results are presented. We combine Gumbel distribution with the GW–McCool model, which is an improved version of the GW model, and the new model considers a bandwidth for wavelengths α. Comparisons of this model with the original GW–McCool model and other simplified versions of the Bush–Gibson–Thomas theory reveal that Gumbel distribution has a better conformity with Amonton’s law for all values of α. When the adhesive contact model is used, the main observation is that there is some friction for zero or even negative applied load. Asperities with a height even less than the separation between the two surfaces are in contact. For a small value of the adhesion parameter, a better conformity with Amonton’s law is observed. The relative pressure increases for stronger adhesion, which indicates that adhesion-controlled friction is dominated by load-controlled friction. We also observe that adhesion increases on a surface with a lower value of roughness.

  15. Abstract

    In thin-film lubrication (TFL), generally, the viscosity of the lubricant and its coefficient of friction (CoF) increase. Finding a method to reduce the CoF in TFL is a significant challenge for tribologists. In the present work, we report a robust superlubricity attained by using polyalkylene glycols (PAGs, polar molecules) and poly-α-olefins (PAOs, nonpolar molecules) as lubricants on steel/steel friction pairs that have been pre-treated by wearing-in with polyethylene glycol aqueous solution (PEG(aq)). A steady superlubricity state with a CoF of 0.0045 for PAG100 and 0.006 for PAO6 could be maintained for at least 1 h. Various affecting factors, including the sliding velocity, normal load, and viscosity of the lubricants, were investigated. Element analysis proved that composite tribochemical layers were deposited on the worn region after the treatment with PEG(aq). These layers were formed by the tribochemical reactions between PEG and steel and composed of various substances including oxides, iron oxides, FeOOH, and Fe(OH)3, which contributed to the superlubricity. In addition to the tribochemical layers, ordered layers and a fluid layer were formed by the PAGs and PAOs during the superlubricity periods. All the three types of layers contributed to the superlubricity, indicating that it was attained in the TFL regime. Accordingly, a mechanism was proposed for the superlubricity of the PAGs and PAOs in the TFL regime in this work. This study will increase the scientific understanding of the superlubricity in the TFL regime and reveal, in the future, the potential for designing superlubricity systems on steel surfaces for industrial applications.

  16. Abstract

    The condition of the motor oil in civilian cars is difficult to monitor; hence, we propose a method to evaluate the degree of degradation of motor oil using an on-board diagnostic (OBD) system. Three civilian cars and four motor oils (containing mineral oils and synthetic oils) were subjected to five groups of road tests under urban traffic and high-way conditions. The operation information, oil service time, mileage, engine operation time, idle time of the engine, and number of start-ups of the engine were obtained using the proposed OBD system. Physiochemical properties and changes in the components of motor oils during road tests were analyzed in laboratory. The theoretical model of the comprehensive indicators of driving parameters and oil properties were established. The proposed method was successfully applied to different cars, motor oils, and operating conditions in road tests. All the theoretical models had high accuracy and precision. Herein, we provide a method to monitor the oil condition with real-time driving parameters and provide a reference for end users to change their motor oil reasonably.

  17. Abstract

    Here, we developed a technique to assess the workability of sealed-for-life greased rolling bearings after a long-term storage. In this framework, we devised a model of equivalent transition between the conditions of natural ageing under daily and seasonally fluctuating temperature, and the conditions of accelerated thermal ageing at a constant high temperature. The tested bearings were thermally aged, and then their steady state friction and outer ring temperature were examined in a custom high-speed spindle. These results were compared to the performance of a reference new bearing tested under the same loading conditions. Our findings suggest that long-term storage can significantly degrade the performance of sealed-for-life greased rolling bearings. However, a proper running-in can substantially deter the ageing-driven degradation of the bearings.

  18. Abstract

    Silicon carbide (SiC) can be tribo-chemically smoothened during a self-mated sliding procedure in the aqueous environment. As well reported in the point-contact tests, this smoothening process works well due to the abundant water as oxidant. After this smoothening process, the tribo-surface is well polished, a closely mated tribo-gap naturally forms, and an ultra-low friction state is built. However, water in the tribo-gap could be insufficient in industrial applications, e.g., the seal gap in mechanical seals. In this study, the tribo-chemical smoothening behavior in such environment was researched. A surface-contact reciprocating test was used to simulate the aqueous environment where water was insufficient. After tests, compared to the published results from the point-contact tests, the same ultra-low friction state was achieved. A part of the tribo-surface was tribo-chemically smoothened. The obtained smoothened surface microstructure was consistent with the published information. Meanwhile, severe abrasive wear occurred. A porous oxygen-rich layer was found existing beneath the abrasion-induced grooves, in which numerous smashed wear debris adhered on the worn surfaces. We concluded that the shortage of water initiated the severe abrasion, meanwhile the generated wear debris aggravated the wear condition. This understanding is instructive for developing new methods to avoid the severe abrasion in the same water insufficient environment.

  19. Abstract

    This study compares micro-abrasive wear in two kinds of grey cast iron. Classical lamellar cast iron with fully pearlitic matrix (FGL1) and lamellar micro-alloyed cast iron with phosphorus and boron (FGL2) are used. FGL2 has a fully pearlitic matrix reinforced by the hard phosphorus eutectic phase. The microstructures of these two types of iron are mechanically characterized using nanoindentation tests. Vickers microindentation and microscratch tests are also performed on these iron samples. The indent and scratch images obtained via scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the scratch damage to the two kinds of iron. The friction coefficient is discussed in terms of applied load, indenter attack angle, and scratch damage. Nanoindentation tests show an improvement in graphite’s mechanical properties and an increase in the matrix hardness of the FGL2, relatively to FGL1. The same damage forms for both microindentation and microscratch testing were observed for the two iron samples. However, cracking of the hard phase is observed in FGL2. The results show that the scratching of the micro-alloyed iron (FGL2) leads to less matrix damage and to an extended microploughing wear mechanism. However, at low normal load, the reinforcement of the matrix can increase the friction coefficient.